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Atellica® CH Analyzer Assay Principles Online Training

Atellica CH Analyzer Assay Principles inlcudes an overview of the advanced topic of assay technologies employed by the CH analyzer.

Welcome to the Atellica® CH Analyzer Assay Principles Online Training course. In this online training, we will look in depth at the assay technologies for the Chemistry Analyzer on the Atellica Solution. Congratulations. You have completed the Atellica® CH Analyzer Assay Principles Online Training course. Listed below are the key points that have been presented. Take time to review the material before you proceed to the final quiz. Identify the assay principles and detection methods of the Atellica® Solution Chemistry Analyzer Photometer: Photometry = the measurement of the intensity of light coming through a sample, or how much light is absorbed by the sample Absorbance = a measure of the light absorbing ability of an object Within the photometry technologies found on the Atellica chemistry analyzer, there are four assay formats: Photometric Assay - glucose or uric acid tests EMIT® Assay - tests drugs of abuse Turbidimetric Assay - measures IgG or IgA specific proteins PETINIA Assay - tests therapeutic drugs IMT: Tests for Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride (electrolytes) Potentiometry = the measurement of voltages from an unknown amount of electrolytes in a patient sample, while comparing it to the voltage generated by a known standard solution Understand the sample delivery, pathway, and flow in the IMT Please note that the learning material is for training purposes only! For the proper use of the software or hardware, please always use the Operator Manual or Instructions for Use (hereinafter collectively “Operator Manual”) issued by Siemens Healthineers. This material is to be used as training material only and shall by no means substitute the Operator Manual. Any material used in this training will not be updated on a regular basis and does not necessarily reflect the latest version of the software and hardware available at the time of the training. The Operator's Manual shall be used as your main reference, in particular for relevant safety information like warnings and cautions. Note: Some functions shown in this material are optional and might not be part of your system. Certain products, product related claims or functionalities (hereinafter collectively “Functionality”) may not (yet) be commercially available in your country. Due to regulatory requirements, the future availability of said Functionalities in any specific country is not guaranteed. Please contact your local Siemens Healthineers sales representative for the most current information. The reproduction, transmission or distribution of this training or its contents is not permitted without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for damages. All names and data of patients, parameters and configuration dependent designations are fictional and examples only. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration of a utility model or design, are reserved. Atellica, and all associated marks are trademarks of Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc. or its affiliates. All other trademarks and brands are the property of their respective owners. Product availability may vary from country to country and is subject to varying regulatory requirements. Please contact your local representative for availability. Copyright © Siemens Healthcare GmbH, 2019 Please proceed to the Assessment. There are two major types of technology employed by the Atellica Chemistry (CH) Analyzer.  Photometry ​IMT The following slides contain more in depth information about these technologies. Chemistry Analyzer Technologies Learn more about the chemistry analyzer technologies. Tab TitleTextPhotometry Technology The CH Analyzer uses photometric technology to measure the light absorbance of samples. These absorbances convert to qualitative, quantitative, and semi-quantitative test results that are reported by the analyzer.  Integrated Multisensor Technology The Integrated Multisensor Technology, also known as IMT, measures the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in patient samples using potentiometry.     What is Photometry? Measures light absorbed by a sample ​Absorbances are converted to qualitative, quantitative and/or semi-quantitative results Photometer is the measuring device used to detect the intensity of light Absorbance Learn more about absorbance. What is absorbance? ​A unit of measure based on the light absorbing ability of an object Equals the difference between the light intensity in and light intensity out of a sample-reagent mixture ​Photometer utilizes a splitter that separates the light into different wavelengths Atellica Chemistry analyzer measures the absorbance at 11 different wavelengths and the wavelength selected is assay-specific and defined in the Test Definition of the software.   Photometric Technology Learn more about the 4 different assay formats of photometric technology. Within the photometry technologies found on the Atellica chemistry analyzer, there are four assay formats:     Photometric Assay: The CH Analyzer calculates photometric assays using one of the following: Endpoint Rate 2-point Photometric Assay Types Learn more about the 3 photometric assay types. Tab TitleTextEndpoint Absorbance is measured after the reaction or color formation completes Collects 3 absorbance measurements & the median measurement is used in the calculation The calculation converts to an assay concentration   Endpoint Assay Steps: Blank: cuvette water blank R1: reagent probe 1 addition S: sample addition R2: reagent probe 2 addition A1: first absorbance time point (sample blank) A2: second absorbance time point (endpoint)      Rate Absorbance is measured as the reaction proceeds The assay concentration is determined by a formula which includes the calculation of the rate of absorbance versus time   Rate Assay Steps: Blank: cuvette water blank R1: reagent probe 1 addition S: sample addition R2: reagent probe 2 addition A1: initial absorbance time point A2: final absorbance time point 2-Point Absorbance is measured as the reaction proceeds Assays with first-order reaction kinetics use the 2-point assay format Absorbance is measured at 2 different times ​Reaction measurements are used to calculate the rate of absorbance versus time   2-Point Assay Steps: Blank: cuvette water blank R1: reagent probe 1 addition S: sample addition R2: reagent probe 2 addition A1: first absorbance time point A2: second absorbance time point  EMIT®: Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique Siemens Syva® EMIT®, Enzyme-Multiplied Immunoassay Technique, was the first homogeneous drug testing technology introduced to the market. Commonly used for qualitative and semi-quantitative determination of drugs of abuse Based on competitive format between the drug present in the sample, and drug labeled with an enzyme in the reagent EMIT® Steps Learn more about the steps of the EMIT® assay. Instructions:Flash File:HTML5 File:/content/generator/Course_90021883/emit_assay_atellicachanalyzer_assayprinciples1/index.htmlPDF File: Turbidimetric Assay: Reaction between sample and reagent is the production of turbidity or cloudiness due to particle aggregation Un-scattered light (indication of turbidity) is measured by the photometer   Turbidimetric Assay Steps Learn more about the steps of turbidimetric assay. Turbidimetric Assay Steps: Sample containing protein of interest (analyte) is diluted in dilution cuvette, then added with Reagent 1 into the reaction cuvette on reaction ring. Reagent 2 is added and mixture is mixed and incubated at 37°C (mixture will become turbid). Light output is measured at the end of the incubation using the photometer. Turbidity develops when soluble immune complexes are formed by the addition of the sample containing the protein of interest (analyte) to a specific antibody, and a buffer containing a polymeric accelerator.   PETINIA: Particle Enhanced Turbidimetric Inhibition Immunoassay Homogeneous competitive immunoassay Antibody fragments and drug-latex particles will bind to form aggregates that increase the turbidity of the solution; free drug from the sample competes for the antibody fragment, thereby decreasing the rate of particle aggregation Rate of aggregation is inversely proportional to the concentration of drug in the sample PETINIA Assay Steps Learn more about the steps of the PETINIA assay. PETINIA Assay Steps: Sample containing target therapeutic drug (analyte) is diluted in dilution cuvette, then added with Reagent 1 into the reaction cuvette on reaction ring. Reagent 2 is added and mixture is mixed and incubated at 37°C (mixture will become turbid). Light output is measured at the end of the incubation using the photometer. If there is a large amount of therapeutic drug in the patient sample, it will bind to the drug specific antibody.  When this happens, the latex-coated drug in the reagent does not have a chance to bind. The less the particles bind, the less turbid the end-product in the cuvette will be. As the concentration of the sample analyte goes up, the turbidity decreases. IMT: Integrated Multisensor Technology The IMT system on the Chemistry Analyzer uses potentiometry to determine the concentration of these electrolytes in patient samples. Tests for Electrolytes: Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ​Monitor diseases of electrolyte imbalance Potentiometry Learn more about potentiometry. Potentiometry is the measurement of voltages from an unknown amount of electrolytes in a patient sample, while comparing it to the voltage generated by a known standard solution. An equation is used to convert the voltages measured into the concentration of the electrolytes in the patient sample. On the Atellica Solution Chemistry Analyzer, the voltages are measured by electrical contacts in the I-M-T sensor.   IMT Sample Learn more about the sample delivery method, pathway, and flow. Tab TitleTextSample Delivery On the Atellica Chemistry Analyzer, the measurement of electrolytes does not take place in the reaction cuvette. It uses a separate measurement system that starts by creating a 1:10 dilution of original sample in the IMT port.    Sample Pathway The Peristaltic Pump pulls the diluted sample from the IMT port to the IMT multisensor for measurement.   Sample Flow Sample flow is an important part of the IMT system, and must flow smoothly through the sensor for accurate measurement. The salt bridge solution serves as the reference solution during every measurement and flows across the reference electrode. The diluted sample is pulled through the sensor and across the ion-selective electrodes. Electrical potential is generated by the sample and compared to the potential generated by the known standard solution. Note: IMT performs a 2-point calibration using Standard A and Standard B and they are pulled through the sensor just like a sample. The difference in readings between Standard A and B at each electrode is used to calculate the calibration slope. Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to: Identify the assay principles and detection methods of the Atellica® CH Analyzer