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General Laboratory: Lean Value Stream Mapping Online Training

A value stream map is a tool used to analyze the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service to a consumer. The objective is to create a new process that balances batch sizes and reduces wait states.

Welcome to the Lean Value Stream Mapping Online Training course.  The Keen but not Lean Medical Center (KLMC) Laboratory is continuing their investment into their Lean Team who are now taking a closer look at the pre-analytical area using value stream mapping to eliminate wait states and improve the flow of their process. Join the KLMC team on their journey and learn how to apply this tool in your laboratory.   Select Next to continue.   Describe how to use the process map to create a value stream map template Define value stream mapping Describe how to redefine a process by eliminating wait states and improving flow Describe the calculations used to assess the value stream map data Identify the data measured when creating a value stream map Upon successful completion of this course, you will be able to: Select Next to continue. Congratulations.  You have completed the Lean Value Stream Mapping Online Training course.  Listed below are key points that have been presented.  Take time to review the material before you proceed to the final quiz. Define value stream mapping A value stream map is a tool used to analyze the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service to a consumer. Key steps of Value Stream Mapping include the following: Description of the current process (use the process map) Take process measurements as a batch of inventory is followed throughout the process Perform calculations to assess the data and identify the wait states Define the new process based on reduced wait states and optimized batch sizes Describe how to use the process map to create a value stream map template The first step in value stream mapping is to create a high-level description of the process: Created during the process mapping phase of the lean project Typically a pencil and paper sketch, which can later be transferred into Visio or another software drawing package Used as a template for capturing the relevant process data The data that is collected is described in the next step of the value stream mapping process.  Identify the data measured when creating a value stream map As the process is being followed, several pieces of data need to be measured at each step in the process: Inventory Process Name Touch Time Batch Size Number of People Observed Times Wait Time Cycle Time Describe the calculations used to assess the value stream map data Once the paper value stream maps have been created and each of the measurements reviewed and averaged: Transfer the data into a Visio template Present the results to the department or section of the lab to get agreement on the accuracy Analytically review the Value Stream Map and make the following calculations to help identify the wait states and batch sizes: Takt Time Percentage of Touch Time (TT) to Process Time (PT) Describe how to redefine a process by eliminating wait states and improving flow Key steps to redefining the process include: Balance the batch size of each process step Reduction of wait states  Try it out and re-measure the value stream Select Next to continue. What is a value stream map? A value stream map is a technique used to analyze the flow of materials and information currently required to bring a product or service to a consumer.   Key steps of Value Stream Mapping include the following: Create a value stream map template based on the process map Take process measurements as a batch of inventory is followed throughout the process Perform calculations to assess the data and identify the wait states Define the new process based on reduced wait states and optimized batch sizes Material Flow versus Information Flow Learn about the difference between material flow and information flow. Tab TitleTextMaterial Flow Material flow is a description of what happens to the product from its initial state to its finished state at the end of the process.   For example, the primary information in regard to processing tubes upon arrival will be either on the attached form and will require human interaction to make a decision, or will be on a barcode which may be scanned by a person or placed on an automated processor. Material flow is a description of what happens to the product, in this case the tubes, from its initial state to its finished state at the end of the process.  Information Flow Information flow describes what signals or commands are given to move the product within and between process steps. In the example of the tubes arriving for processing, the primary information is either on a manual form or on a barcode. When complete, select the X in the upper-right corner to close the window and continue.    The first step in value stream mapping is to create a high-level description of the process. The process description is: Created during the process mapping phase of the lean project  Typically a pencil and paper sketch, which can later be transferred into Visio or another software drawing package Used as a template for capturing the relevant process data The data that is collected is described in the next step of the value stream mapping process. Value Stream Map Template Learn how the team used their process map to create their value stream map template. Once the current process has been sketched, additional data boxes can be added to the drawing to create a value stream map template. This template will make it easier for the Lean team to record the data that will be measured during the next step of value stream mapping.   When complete, select the X in the upper-right corner to close the window and continue.    The next step in value stream mapping is to follow a selected batch as it travels through the process. As the process is being followed, several pieces of data need to be measured at each step in the process: Inventory Process Name Touch Time Batch Size Number of People Observed Times Wait Time Cycle Time Download and print a copy of Value Stream template instructions.   Value Stream Data Learn how to measure the data needed to create a value stream map. Slide NumberText BlocksCalloutsAudio ScriptImage File1 To create a value stream map, a selected batch is followed as it travels through the process and several pieces of data are measured at each step: Inventory Process Name Touch Time Batch Size Number of People Observed Times Wait Time Cycle Time   Select Next to continue. Note: If audio does not automatically start, select the play arrow in the top left to begin. To create a value stream map, a selected batch is followed as it travels through the process and several pieces of data are measured at each step. In this slideshow, we will use the centrifuge step in the KLMC Laboratory's pre-analytical process as an example to demonstrate how each type of data is measured. Select Next to continue. 2 Inventory:  The number of items waiting that will hinder the process of the item being followed through the process.   Example: The number of tubes that need to be processed before the tube being followed can be processed. In the example of the Centrifuge step, the team found that there weren't any tubes waiting to be centrifuged, therefore the inventory is zero.     Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text. Callouts Inventory One piece of data that needs to be measured for each step of the process is the inventory. Inventory is the number of items waiting that will hinder the process of the item being followed through the process. The KLMC lean team measures the number of tubes that need to be processed before the tube being following can be processed. In the example of the Centrifuge step, the team found that there weren't any tubes waiting to be centrifuged, therefore the inventory is zero. Select next to continue. 3 Process Name:  The name of the process step.    Example: Centrifuge     Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text.CalloutsProcess NameAnother item that needs to be identified is the process name, which is simply defined as the name of the process step. The process name for the step we are using in this example is Centrifuge. Select next to continue. 4 Touch Time (TT): The time in seconds to process one single item.   Example: If it takes 100 seconds to load 50 samples, then TT = 2 seconds.     Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text. CalloutsTouch TimeThe touch time is the time in seconds needed to process one single item. The KLMC team determines that it takes 100 seconds to load 50 samples on the centrifuge. Therefore, the touch time is two seconds. Select next to continue.5 Batch Size:  Number of items in the batch that contain the item we are following.   Example:  If 32 tubes arrive at the centrifuge at the start of the timing, then the batch size is 32.     Select Next to continue. Select the number to review the corresponding text. Callouts Batch Size The batch size is the number of items in the batch that contain the item we are following. In our example, 32 tubes arrived at the centrifuge at the start of the timing, so the batch size is 32. Select Next to continue. 6 Number of People: The number of staff working at this part of the process.   Example: If one person is managing the centrifuge, then assign one person to the step.      Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text. CalloutsNumber of PeopleThe next piece of data we are looking at in the value stream is the number of people. This is the number of staff working at this part of the process. For example, if one person is managing the centrifuge, then assign one person to the step. Select next to continue. 7 Observed Times: The observed start time and stop time for this process step. Example: If the process step start at 19:47 and completes at 19:49, then record those times.     Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text. CalloutsObserved TimeThe observed times are defined as the observed start time and stop time for the process step that is being evaluated. For the centrifuge step, the KLMC lean team observes a start time of 19:47 and a stop time of 19:49. Select next to continue. 8 Wait Time: The observed time between the process steps in seconds. Example: If the process completes at 19:49 and the next step starts at 19:50 then the wait time is 60 seconds.     Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text. CalloutsWait TimeThe wait time is the observed time between the process steps in seconds. The KLMC team records that loading the centrifuge is complete at 19:49 and the next step in the process starts at 19:50. The wait time is then 60 seconds. Select next to continue. 9 Cycle Time: The time it takes to complete any process step that is fixed (in seconds).   Example: If the centrifuge spins for 10 minutes, then the cycle time is 600 seconds.     Select Next to continue.  Select the number to review the corresponding text. Callouts Cycle Time The cycle time is the time in seconds that it takes to complete any process step that is fixed. The KLMC lean team finds that the centrifuge spins for 10 minutes. Therefore the cycle time is 600 seconds. Select next to continue. 10 Summary of Value Stream Map Data   The KLMC lean team measured the following data points for each process step: Inventory Process Name Touch Time Batch Size Number of People Observed Times Wait Time Cycle Time When complete, select the X in the upper-right corner to close the window and continue. To create the value stream map of the pre-analytical process, the KLMC Lean team followed a selected batch of tubes through the process and created a drawing of the process. For each step of the process, they measured data points to allow for a better understanding of the material and information flow. Once the paper value stream maps have been created and each of the measurements reviewed and averaged: Transfer the data into a Visio template or another software drawing package (optional) Present the results to the department or section of the lab to get agreement on the accuracy Analytically review the Value Stream Map and make the following calculations to help identify the wait states and batch sizes: Takt Time Percentage of Touch Time (TT) to Process Time (PT) Takt Time Learn about the Takt time calculation. Slide NumberText BlocksCalloutsAudio ScriptImage File1 Takt Time Definition:  The amount of work time required for each unit produced. The Takt time is set by the customer demand and indicates the necessary pace for all process steps. All processes have to be aligned to the Takt time to ensure demand-driven process execution.   Select Next to continue.  Note: If audio does not automatically start, select the play arrow in the top left to begin.Takt Time is defined as the amount of work time required for each unit produced. The takt time is set by the customer demand and indicates the necessary pace for all process steps. All processes have to be aligned to the takt time to ensure demand-driven process execution. Select Next to continue.2 How to Calculate Takt Time   T = Ta/Td Where   T = Takt time   Ta = Net time available to work, e.g. [minutes of work / day]   Td = Time demand (customer demand), e.g. [units required / day] Net time available = working time – regular ‘non-direct’ time (non-direct time = stand-up meetings, breaks, cleaning, etc.)   In many cases Takt time is used to plan production, so equalizing Takt across production allows you to staff to meet the production needs and calculate the required Takt time.      Select Next to continue.      Takt Time is calculated as the net time available to work divided by the time demand. In practice, to calculate Takt Time first figure out what your demand is, in other words what does your customer want. Then calculate your available time to meet that demand and calculate the Takt Time. Select Next to continue. 3 The first area the KLMC team decided to apply the Takt Time concept was at ‘Labeling’.   Takt Time = Ta/Td Ta = 3600 seconds (The labeling must be completed in 1 hour) Td = 250 requests (The number of labels that must be processed) Takt Time = 3600 / 250 = 14.4 seconds From the Value Stream Map data (shown in the image), it takes one staff member 20 seconds to complete the labeling step.  Therefore, to accomplish the work in one hour, the number of staff required to label these requests is greater than one.  The KLMC team was able to use Takt Time to determine the right amount of people to process the labeling requests.   Select Next to continue. The first area the KLMC team decided to apply the Takt Time concept was at ‘Labeling’. From their value stream map, the team noticed that the Labeling step had a large inventory of 250 requests waiting to be processed. This showed the team that the number of staff was not coping with the demand. To analyze this data, the team determined that the 250 requests needed to be completed in one hour. Based on this, they calculated the Takt Time to be 14.4 seconds. From the Value Stream Map data, it takes one staff member 20 seconds to complete the labeling step. Therefore, to accomplish the work in one hour, the number of staff required to label these requests is greater than one. The KLMC team was able to use Takt Time to determine the right amount of people to process the labeling requests. Select Next to continue. 4 Based on their experience with Takt Time calculations, the KLMC team concluded: They needed to calculate the Takt Time before they could establish standard working practices. Takt Time allowed them to establish the rate at which the team must work to meet demand. The process step for which the Takt Time is being calculated must be balanced with the other process stages. When complete, select the X in the upper-right corner to close the window and continue. Although the KLMC team initially thought that the concept of Takt Time was quite complicated they quickly realized that they needed to calculate the Takt Time before they could establish standard working practices and what they had to do was simple really – just establish the rate at which the team must work to meet demand and make sure that the process step for which the Takt Time is being calculated is balanced with the other process stages. TT/PT Learn about the Touch Time to Process Time calculation. Slide NumberText BlocksCalloutsAudio ScriptImage File1 Percentage of TT to PT   The data from the value stream map can be used to calculate the overall Touch Time (TT) and Process Time (PT).   Touch Time is the sum of the touch times from each process step Process Time is the sum of time from when the batch starts to when it ends It can sometimes be useful to state the results as a percentage:  (TT/PT*100)%       Select Next to continue.  Note: If audio does not automatically start, select the play arrow in the top left to begin.The data from the value stream map can be used to calculate the overall Touch Time and Process Time. The Touch Time is the sum of the touch times from each process step, while the Process Time is the sum of time from when the batch starts to when it ends expressed in minutes. It can sometimes be useful to state the results as a percentage, calculated as touch time divided by process time multiplied by one hundred. Select Next to continue. 2 The KLMC team calculated the total TT and PT for the pre-analytical process.   Touch Time: From the Value Stream Map the team counted all the TT measurements:   Sum of all TT measurements = 262 seconds     = 4 minutes 22 seconds   The 10 minute Cycle Time at the Centrifugation step was also added – this was the time recommended by their tube manufacturer and therefore could not be shortened.   Process Time: Observed start time of the process = 18:00 hrs Observed end time of the process  = 20:25 hrs Total Process Time = 2 hours 25 minutes     Select Next to continue.  CalloutsTouch Time is 4 minutes 22 seconds 2+2+120+2+20+2+60+20+2+2+30 = 262 seconds  Process Time is 2 hours 25 minutes Start time = 18:00 hrs End time = 20:25 hrs The KLMC team calculated the total touch time and process time for the pre-analytical process. From the Value Stream Map the team added all the touch time measurements together to get a total touch time of 4 minutes 22 seconds. The 10 minute Cycle Time at the Centrifugation step was also added since this was the time recommended by their tube manufacturer and therefore could not be shortened. The Process Time was calculated as the amount of time that elapsed between the start of the process and the end time. In this example, the total process time is 2 hours 25 minutes. Select Next to continue. 3 KLMC's TT/PT Calculation    The team calculated the percentage of touch time to process time:   (4 minutes 22 seconds / 2 hours 25 minutes) *100 = 3%    As the Touch Time is only approximately 3% of the Process Time (excluding the cycle time) the KLMC team realized that there must be unnecessary wait times or other non value added activities within the current process – giving them lots of opportunities for improvement. When complete, select the X in the upper-right corner to close the window and continue. The team calculated the percentage of touch time to process time to be three percent. As the Touch Time is only approximately 3% of the Process Time (excluding the cycle time) the KLMC team realized that there must be unnecessary wait times or other non value added activities within the current process – giving them lots of opportunities for improvement. Key steps to redefining the process include: Balance the batch size of each process step Reduction of wait states Try it out and re-measure the value stream Redefining the Process See the newly redefined process at KLMC. Slide NumberText BlocksCalloutsAudio ScriptImage File1 Balance Batch Sizes   The KLMC team balanced their batch size for the ‘Transport to Upstairs’ step: Sorting all the samples delivered and transporting them upstairs all at once was creating a build up of inventory at the main sort step. Having 2 sort steps was duplicating staff effort and time – an example of Extra Processing The KLMC team decided to pilot a new process where each of the 2 staff members carried out a complete sort and then transported the samples upstairs every 30 minutes. In reality this meant that approximately 50 samples were taken upstairs every 15 minutes throughout the day, thus smoothing out the workflow.    Select Next to continue.  Note: If audio does not automatically start, select the play arrow in the top left to begin.One example of how the KLMC team balanced their batch sizes was at the ‘Transport to Upstairs’ step. Sorting all the samples delivered and transporting them upstairs all at once was creating a build up of inventory at the main sort step. The team found that having 2 sort steps was duplicating staff effort and time. This is an example of Extra Processing waste. The KLMC team decided to pilot a new process where each of the 2 staff members carried out a complete sort and then transported the samples upstairs every 30 minutes. In reality this meant that approximately 50 samples were taken upstairs every 15 minutes throughout the day, thus smoothing out the workflow. Select Next to continue. 2 Reduction of Wait States   Examples of how the KLMC team reduced the wait states in the pre-analytical process: The KLMC team introduced a new role into the process. Throughout the day a ‘sweeper’ pulled the samples from the Labeling step and put them in small batches. They filled and emptied the centrifuges with these tubes every 10 minutes and delivered the samples to the decapping bench. They also decided to pilot Single Piece Flow at the Labeling step by combining it with the Logging In step. Single Piece Flow is a Lean concept in which each person or process only works on one piece at a time before it is pulled downstream.  This allows for a robust audit trail, less opportunity for error and reducing the wait steps and therefore the turnaround time.   Select Next to continue.        One example of how the KLMC team reduced the wait states in the pre-analytical process is that they introduced a new role into the process. Throughout the day a ‘sweeper’ pulled the samples from the Labeling step and put them in small batches. They filled and emptied the centrifuges with these tubes every 10 minutes and delivered the samples to the decapping bench. Another example of the lean team reducing wait states is that they decided to pilot Single Piece Flow* at the Labeling step by combining it with the Logging In step. This meant that only one person was responsible for all the sub process steps, allowing a robust audit trail, less opportunity for error and reducing the wait steps and therefore the turn around time. Select next to continue.3 The KLMC was able to accomplish the following improvements using Value Stream Mapping: A reduction in the process steps from 83 to 42. All the non-value added process steps had been removed. This translated in the Post Improvement Value Stream Map to a 1 hour 35 minute reduction in the Process Time. The Touch Time reduced by 54 seconds. Sometimes the TT increases because the improvements have created a new process where staff are working calmly, consistently and getting it right first time.   It is important to use the last step of one value stream map as the first step of the next to manage batch size and Takt time where possible.   Once the KLMC lean team develops experience, it would be beneficial for them to draw an end to end value stream map that will allow them to look at clinical pathways as well as interlaboratory processes.   When complete, select the X in the upper-right corner to close the window and continue. The KLMC was able to accomplish several process improvements using Value Stream Mapping. When the new process was piloted and the new process map completed there was a reduction in the process steps from 83 to 42. All the non-value added process steps and therefore the waste had been removed. This translated in the Post Improvement Value Stream Map to a reduction in the Process Time of 1 hour 35 minutes from 2 hours 25 minutes to 50 minutes - a huge improvement in the turn around time. The Touch Time has only slightly reduced – 54 seconds but this is what we would expect. In fact sometimes the TT increases because the Takt time calculations, the smaller batches, the reduced wait steps and the introduction of Single Piece Flow have created a new process where staff are working calmly, consistently and getting it right first time. It is often easier to create smaller value stream maps and optimize the process, however it is important to use the last step of one value stream map as the first step of the next to manage batch size and takt time where possible. Once the KLMC lean team develops experience, it would be beneficial for them to draw an end to end value stream map that will allow them to look at clinical pathways as well as interlaboratory processes.