Grappa stands for generalized auto calibrating partially parallel acquisition. It speeds of acquisition by under sampling the acquisition data in case base and exploiting parallel imaging technique that acquires parallel information in case base from different coil elements. In non accelerating imaging all points in K space are required and grappa. A reference scan is obtained first. This is a low resolution image where all case based points are acquired. Then Undersampling starts in the phase encoding direction. For two D imaging with an acceleration factor of two, Grampa acquires data from every other line in K space. For 3D image Ng with an acceleration factor of two by two grappa Additionally, subsamples data in the partition encoding direction. An algorithm then projects the full image information. It fills in the gaps by combining information of the acquired data points from multiple coil elements. With Grampa, this is done in the frequency space or case space before the image is transformed to image space via Fourier transformation. Here, Grampa differs from another parallel imaging method, since performs this combination. After image reconstruction, Grampa saves acquisition time and almost all clinical applications, it performs well in small field of use. An inhomogenous regions compared to a fully encoded image. However, Grampa is associated with signal to noise ratio loss. So choose the acceleration factor wisely for a good compromise between temporal and spatial resolution in the different clinical applications. For example, you can achieve P 83 for the knee or P82 for the spine.
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GRAPPA Fourier Transform 000 @ Siemens Healthcare GmbH, 2019 Fully encoded image Please note that the learning material is for training purposes only! GRAPPA image GRAPPA For the proper use of the software or hardware, please always use the Operator Manual or Instructions for Use (hereinafter collectively "Operator Manual") issued by Siemens Healthineers. This material is to be used as training material only and shall by no means substitute the Operator Manual. Generalized Any material used in this training will not be updated on a regular basis and does not necessarily reflect the latest version of the software and hardware available at the time of the training. The Operator Manual shall be used as your main reference, in particular for relevant safety Knee information like warnings and cautions. Cardiac 000 Note: Some functions shown in this material are optional and might not be part of your system. The Knee Cardiac GRAPPA Abdomen information in this material contains general technical descriptions of specifications and options as L-Spine well as standard and optional features that do not always have to be present in individual cases. Head Certain products, product related claims or functionalities described in the material (hereinafter Head Partiallyl collectively "Functionality") may not (yet) be commercially available in your country. Due to regulatory requirements, the future availability of said Functionalities in any specific country is not Acquisition guaranteed. Please contact your local Siemens Healthineers sales representative for the most current L-Spine information. L-Spine Pelvis The reproduction, transmission or distribution of this training or its contents is not permitted without Ankle Shoulder Hip express written authority. Offenders will be liable for damages. Pelvis All names and data of patients, parameters and configuration dependent designations are fictional Ankle and examples only. Spatial Frequency domain Image domain No acceleration Acceleration PAT = 3 O Reference Scan All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration of a utility model or design, are (k-space) reserved.