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MR Cardiac Morphology Techniques

This course discusses the different imaging techniques for evaluating the morphology of the heart.

Objectives
- Perform bright blood techniques for cardiac imaging
- Perform dark blood techniques for cardiac imaging
- Perform dark blood optimization

MR Cardiac Morphology Techniques This concludes the course MR Cardiac Morphology Techniques. You should now be able to: Perform bright blood techniques for cardiac imaging Perform dark blood techniques for cardiac imaging Perform dark blood optimization By the end of this course you will be able to: Perform bright blood techniques for cardiac imaging   Perform dark blood techniques for cardiac imaging   Perform dark blood optimization Steady State Free Precession with Balanced Gradients   Image Contrast Depends on T2/T1 Rates of Tissues   Image Contrast Depends on Steady State Signal of Spins Gradient Recalled Echo with Spoiling   Image Contrast Depends on T1 Relaxation Rates of Tissues   Image Contrast Depends on Inflow of Non-excited Spins   Select each tab below to view examples of bright blood acquisition sequences. Segmented Higher spatial & temporal resolution Longer scan time Sensitivity to arrhythmias Sensitivity to breathing Single Shot Lower spatial & temporal resolution Shorter scan time Insensitivity to arrhythmias Insensitivity to breathing TrueFISP Segmented 6 heartbeats Higher spatial & temporal resolution TrueFISP Single Shot 1 heartbeat Lower spatial & temporal resolution *MR scanning has not been established as safe for imaging fetuses and infants less than two years of age. The responsible physician must evaluate the benefits of the MR examination compared to those of other imaging procedures. Older techniques produced: Respiratory motion artifacts Cardiac motion artifacts Blood flow artifacts Long scan times Breath hold eliminates respiratory motion artifacts   Diastolic gating eliminates cardiac motion artifacts   Dark blood pulse eliminates blood flow artifacts   Short acquisition times l Dark Blood TSE Double IR Blood Nulled Dark Blood STIR Triple IR Blood & Fat Nulled Dark Blood TSE Double IR Blood Nulled Dark Blood STIR Triple IR Blood & Fat Nulled Dark Blood TSE T2 Fatsat Blood & Fat Nulled Dark Blood STIR Blood & Fat Nulled Select each tab to view examples of the Triple IR Scheme.   Blood Null Time (TI) varies with Heart Rate (BPM) TR too short: systolic motion reduces myocardial signal   TR optimized    TR too long:    Blood signal begins to recover Select each tab below to view examples of Dark Blood Optimization Tips. T1 Weighting - Use 1 trigger pulse - Use small turbo factor - Use short TE T2 Weighting - Use 2-3 trigger pulses - User large turbo factor - Use long TE Segmented K-space Several heartbeats Higher spatial & temporal resolution Sensitive to arrhythmias Sensitive to breathing Single Shot K-space One heartbeat Lower spatial & temporal resolution Not sensitive to arrhythmias Not sensitive to breathing Segmented DB TSE   - 8 heartbeats   - Higher spatial & temporal resolution Single Shot DB HASTE   - 1 heartbeat   - Lower spatial & temporal resolution Select each tab below to view examples of images acquired using the free breathing technique. Breath Hold TSE   - Segmented K-space   - Failed Free Breathing HASTE   - Single Shot K-space   - Successful Free Breathing - 1 image per heart beat